A long time ago there used to be paper tickets. Just plain paper. I remember those long, 4×1 small tickets sold by packs of ten. They were ugly, easy to loose and vary sticky to anything but my pocket. But technology evolved. The need to have a flexible transportation system brought the second generation of tickets: the thick paper with four tear corners: the ticket for connections with several lines. AS there were four corners, it was reasonable to think that in one our or one hour and half, everyone could get from point A to point B with no more than 3 connections, which was correct in 99% of the cases. But the ticket was big and ugly, so a new generation of tickets appeared, the ones with a magnetic strip. They allowed an unlimited number of connections for 90 minutes. Very handy, much smaller than the previous generations, they were easy to loose and subject to magnetic interference. A new technology having evolved during the time and being considered as secure as one could be, the smart card transportation passes appeared. The complex technology having a price, they were not available as one trip tickets, but as monthly or annual passes. Made of robust plastic, credit card sized, the smart card passes become the ideal support and more and more transportation companies adopted them. The chip was powerful enough to serve for secondary purposes, like electronic purse, or ID for other modern transportation means, like city bikes, or electric cars.